This includes acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin and Advil). Children under age 18 should not be given aspirin unless instructed by a doctor because of a potentially life threatening illness called Reye's syndrome.
Acetaminophen is generally considered safe in infants and children over 2 months old but you should check with your child's doctor for dosing instructions and never give more than 5 doses in 24 hours. It is very easy to overdose on acetaminophen, which could cause serious harm.
Ibuprofen is considered safe for children over 6 months old but you should check with child's doctor for dosing instructions. Ibuprofen can sometimes cause upset stomach so it should be avoided when a child may have stomach pain.
This includes any medication used for runny noses and itching. Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and loratidine (Claritin) are the most widely recognized over-the-counter antihistamines. They have been found to be effective for treating allergies and allergic reactions, but studies have revealed they are ineffective in relieving symptoms when a child has a cold.
There is some evidence that antihistamines can cause sedation when compared with alternative. In some cases though, antihistamines may cause children to become restless, irritable and have difficulty sleeping.
Because of the lack symptom relief and the potential side effects, antihistamines should not be given to a child under 4 years old and should be used with caution in older kids.
Decongestants, such as pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), have little effect in children when they have colds or upper respiratory infections. They are also prone to causing irritability, restlessness and nervousness. Since they have no proven benefit for common viral illnesses, they are generally not worth the potential side effects.
Coughing is the body's way of clearing out the lungs and generally should not be suppressed. If your child has a cough that persists, his doctor should evaluate him so he can treat the underlying cause of the cough. Cough suppressants should be avoided because stopping a cough can lead to more serious illness, and the safety and efficacy of cough suppressants have been questioned in some studies.
Expectorants may help loosen a child's cough if it is dry or non-productive. You should always check with your child's doctor before giving your child any type of cough medication because he may want to see the child first.
Read more about Cough Medications and Kids.
5. Medications for Vomiting/Diarrhea
Vomiting and diarrhea are two of the symptoms that frighten parents the most in their children. Most parents just want to make their children feel better and want these symptoms to disappear. Unfortunately, vomiting and diarrhea are usually the body's way of eliminating whatever germ is in it. Stopping the diarrhea and vomiting with medication can possibly make things worse.
The most important thing to do is to make sure your child is staying hydrated with small sips of Gatorade (mixed half and half with water) or Pedialyte. Pepto-Bismol should never be given to a child because it contains aspirin. If you are concerned about your child's vomiting or diarrhea, contact his doctor.
Many parents are concerned that their child's illness will only resolve after a round of antibiotics. However, this is usually not the case. Antibiotics will not cure or shorten the duration of a viral illness, such as the common cold or flu. Unfortunately, many antibiotics are often overprescribed because parents insist that they have one so their child will get better sooner. This problem has led to drug-resistant bacteria and they still do not help a child with a viral illness. So if your child's doctor tells you that your child has a virus, don't push for an antibiotic; it won't help anyone.
Common Over the Counter Medications Safety and Prevention 10 Jul 13. HealthyChildren.org. American Academy of Pediatrics. 13 Sep 13.
OTC Medications. Parenting Corner Q&A Jun 07. American Academy of Pediatrics. 03 Aug 07.